Description. White flesh, freestone. Peach Tree References Pruning Peach Trees. My fond memories of the peaches from those trees prompted me to plant a tree in my back yard in the spring of 1999 soon after buying my house. Dwarf: Grow between 8-10 Feet tall and wide. Only the sweet cherries, avocados, and some plums require a pollinator. Pears need at least two trees for pollination. On the right is a delicious spread known as pear honey made from Kieffer pears. Therefore, the removal of excess fruit from the trees is essential to ensure satisfactory development of the color, shape and size of the remaining peaches. Flowers on this tree are a vibrant, bright red color. Most peach varieties are self-pollinating, not requiring a second tree. Apples: All varieties need a different variety to cross pollinate with. Many trees such as an apple tree, require a nearby apple of a different variety to pollinate one another. They are hardy in Zones 5-8. A freestone peach with bright yellow flesh. Florida Certified Horticulture Professional. Black Forest Nursery carries 5 varieties of Hydrangea Trees. A very attractive tree with delectable fruit, creamy-orange Galaxy Peento Peach is prized for its deliciously sweet, tender white flesh. This self-pollinating peach tree will grow to about 20 feet. Bearing Age: 2-3 years after planting Size at Maturity: 10-12 ft. 0 out of 5 stars 1. Each tree will only grow to about 8-10 feet high. High yielding Legacy blueberry plants are a heavy producer medium-sized fruit with superior flavor and sweetness. Free Returns 100% Money Back Guarantee Fast Shipping. Choosing, planting & growing berry bushes, fruit & nut trees. The fruit from this peach tree has delicious flavor and is a heavy producer. The flesh is firm, white tinged with red, sweet and juicy. Deciduous fruit trees include stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and apricot), pomme fruits (apple, quince, nashi and pear), and others such as mulberry, persimmon, pomegranate and fig. There are many uses for the peach, including jams, salsa, pies and ice cream. Southern Belle Farm is a family owned 330 acre working farm. Pollination Requirements Native persimmons are usually dioecious; that is, trees produce either male or female flowers. Central IDinois: Listed in order of ripening - yellow-fleshed varieties, Colora, Reliance, Madison; white-fleshed variety, Belle of Georgia. Peach trees are often thought of as Georgia’s gift to the rest of the country, but the most delicious, juicy peaches come out of Virginia. White-fleshed fruit drops when ripe. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 to 9, Elberta. Growing tree fruit in the home garden or yard can be a rewarding pastime. The skins are typically similar to yellow-flesh peaches, with yellow or red skins. The tree is. Explore Maggie H. Deciduous fruit trees include stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and apricot), pomme fruits (apple, quince, nashi and pear), and others such as mulberry, persimmon, pomegranate and fig. Self-fertile trees will produce fruit without the need for another tree to pollinate it, although, even self-pollinating trees will produce more fruit with other pollinators around. Order Fruit Trees from Grandpa's Orchards Here! It's easy to order, just click a picture or variety and "Add it to your Cart". Produces peaches mid-season. Self pollinating or self fertile trees on the other hand can manage to produce fruit on their own without other trees’ help in pollination. (Self-pollinating) Print this sign out at www. 'F06-043' PP 23,325. Peaches grow best in USDA zones 5 through 9. All varieties listed are self fruitful. Peaches are not native to North America; however, many cultivars have been developed for our area, and Georgia has a long history of successful peach production. And remember that climate is the most important. Self-pollinating. Which means you can get away with planting a single specimen and still have fruit. Flowering Vines. They are not drought tolerant. The "Belle of Georgia" peach (Prunus persica "Belle of Georgia") is a red-flowered peach tree variety grown in U. Peaches grow best in USDA zones 5 through 9. Water thoroughly twice a week on light soils and once a week on clay soils. USDA zones 5-9. Peach Tree References Pruning Peach Trees. Belle of Georgia trees are self-pollinating and yield large, flavorful peaches. Peaches are deciduous fruit trees and require a dormant and rest period. High flavored for fresh eating or canning. Self-fruitful. Available at farm for pickup: 5-gallon and 7-gallon. meyer lemon tree - flowered, but no fruit I bought a Meyer lemon via mail order this past winter. Since it flowers in the middle of the blossom season it can be pollinated by most other peach trees. We provide information about how to get started and maintaining your orchard. Belle of Georgia is large, creamy white with a bright red blush and deliciously. Peach trees, Prunus persica, are originally believed to have come from China to the Mideast through the trade routes known to extend to Turkey and Iran (Persia) History of Peach Trees The peach seeds could be used to plant and grow trees throughout North Africa and Europe and finally were introduced to America in the mid 1500's. However, if you plant more than one tree?…particularly if you really love peaches and plums?…you'll have plenty of fruit. 0—test the dirt in your landscape for acidity. The tree is. Distinctive sub tropical fruit that can be grown in most parts of New Zealand. Mix and match one plant at a time – once the third has been added to your cart, all will be 20% off!. For example, apple will only pollinate apple, pear pollinate pear, but plums, gages will damsons will pollinate each other if compatible. Peach Tree pruning is labor-intensive work, if trees are left unpruned, results in weak trees, overproduction, increased disease, shorter tree life. The flower was adopted as the floral emblem of Delaware in 1895 and the state flower in 1953. Although pecans hold the favor of many Georgia orchardists, almonds thrive in this state. It is not drought-tolerant. ) Self-unfruitful or Needs Cross Pollination - Cross pollination from one or more compatible cultivars is essential for Apples, Pears, most Sweet Cherries (except 'Stella' & 'Compact Stella'), and most Japanese Plums. Asian pears are typically round in shape (similar to apples) and have russet coats. Die blomtyd vir perske bome is 2 weke voor appelbome. As with most fruit trees, the trick is to start out with the peach variety that suits your climate. Contact us for plant advice/pricing. container size, trees are 5-6’) B&B = balled and burlap in a wire basket, trees are measured by the trunk caliper size (1. Peaches are deciduous fruit trees and require a dormant and rest period. The Harvester is considered fast growing, it grows between 2-3′ a year. Find a perfect plant for your needs. A freestone peach with bright yellow flesh. This self-pollinating peach tree will grow to about 20 feet. Thank you, Heirloom Apple Tree. growersoutlet. uncommon to find trees that are 25 to 30 feet in height and width. Pawpaws or papaya are another good example of fruit trees that in many cases produce separate male and female trees, but just to complicate matters there are also pawpaws trees that are termed bisexual plants, these are trees that produce flowers with both male and female parts making them self fertile or sefl pollinating so you will only need the one tree to get fruit. I found them to be very amusing and informative. It is also a favorite for making cider. Sometimes a peach seed will produce a nectarine tree, or a nectarine seed will grow to be a peach tree. The Belle of Georgia Peach tree can be grown successfully throughout the United States with proper care. Bell of Georgia peaches, also known as Belle of Georgia peaches, are large peach trees that consist of freestone peaches that have a firm, white flesh. Important: advice about pollination. Gala Peach. Flesh white, highly flavored and very firm. You don’t need multiple peach trees to enjoy the fruit. As the demand for trees increased The Nursery Co. Usually needs a short course for care, as all peaches do. Belle of Georgia peach has been grown for centuries from the north to the south. Popular dwarf tree varieties include Reliance, Contender, and the Belle of Georgia. This is freestone peach with white flesh. if you want a better fruit set , plant another type of peach tree that blooms the same time as your Elberta. In general, white nectarines tend to ripen later than yellow types, and freestone fruit ripens later than clingstone. While the information is prepared with Indiana and other gardeners in the Midwestern U. USDA zones 5-9. White Georgia Peaches Self fertile 5 seeds, big. Very good fruit. If you want only one pear tree, select a self-pollinating variety. Ripens 4 weeks after Red Haven. Peach trees can grow in USDA Zones 5 to 8, but do especially well in Zones 6 and 7. They are not guaranteed to fruit the year of planting, but many will. The trees bloom very early in the spring and it is difficult to grow apricots in most parts of Idaho because of. Belle of Georgia peaches are grown on peach trees which are very cold hardy. Peach trees can be difficult to grow. Our diverse choice of grafted jujube trees are very hardy and quick to bear. Mix and match one plant at a time – once the third has been added to your cart, all will be 20% off!. This tree is self pollinating and great for home owners who have limited space. O Box 4 Ruther Glen, VA 22546 Phone: 8040-448-4430 Fax: 804-448-5919 sales @virginiaberryfarm. Growing tree fruit in the home garden or yard can be a rewarding pastime. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N. It is grown for its luscious fruit but some cultivars are grown chiefly for there flowers and produce inedible fruit. tall and wide (5-8 m). Seeds and Bulbs. Very firm peach and highly flavored. Boosters & Supplies. PB746, “ Tree Fruit and Small Fruit Cultivars for Tennessee” David W. European pears can be self-fertile, but unless noted below, it is recommended that customers have at least two different pear trees to pollinate one another. I am right on the edge of zone 7b, almost 8a. A freestone peach with bright yellow flesh. Redhaven Peach tree, World's most widely planted peach. Low-chill varieties are always the earliest to ripen because they break dormancy in late winter -- not a good thing in northern climates, however. ) between trees. Beyond their use as ornamental trees, some Maples have more practical uses. A hardy, compact tree growing to 2 meters at full maturity. They may however benefit from cross pollination. This is a tree that will provide you with a large harvest with very little care needed on your part. Self-Pollinating Mid-Season Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium) "Sunburst" ripens in the middle of the peak cherry season and has large, dark red fruit. These are a few of the the best fruit and nut trees available for growing successfully in Zone 5 and warmer. The trees reach an overall height of 20’ feet tall with a spread 10’ foot wide. Do you like the name Georgia Belle? (Georgia is Greek or Latin and means farmer, and Belle is French for beautiful) Also, I have a daughter named Savannah Jolie (Savannah Jo)so do you think its too matchy to have sisters named Savannah and Georgia?. We live and grow grapes in the Yamhill Carlton AVA. No; an Elberta will pollinate itself. Peregrine is the most popular peach grown in the UK and with Red flush on white skin it is impressive to behold. Trees of 'UFSun' regularly bear heavy annual crops of early season fruit which are medium size for its ripening season. Self-fertile trees will produce fruit without the need for another tree to pollinate it, although, even self-pollinating trees will produce more fruit with other pollinators around. Watch Queue Queue. Bartlett is the most recognized European-type pear in America and is not adapted to the Southeast and should not be planted in Georgia. Although plants are self-pollinating, they tend to produce better harvests when grown with a different Blueberry variety to help with cross-pollination. When you tire of fresh fruit peaches can be used in many different ways; baked, canned, froze, pureed, roasted, and sauced into preserves. Example: buds of the peach cultivar known as 'Ranger', an outstanding fruit producer, should, if planting in an acid sandy soil, be purchased already grafted onto a 'Nemaguard' rootstock which has built-in resistance to certain nematodes. Belle of Georgia is large, creamy white with a bright red blush and deliciously. Highbush blueberries will set much better crops if cross‑pol ‑ lination is provided. Self Sufficient Me 5,299,340 views. Buy (5 Gallon Bare-root) CONTENDER PEACH tree, Dwarf, COLD HARDY-for temperatures below 0, Fruit are medium in size,. Willis Orchard Company makes it easy for you to buy fruit trees online, and offers only the finest peach trees for sale for your home orchard, from white peach trees to red baron peach trees. However, you will have a much higher fruit yield with two of them planted within 30 feet of each other. Nothing beats the flavor of a fresh peach ripened in your own backyard. Chilling Requirements: Stone fruit trees such as peaches develop their vegetative and fruiting buds in the summer, and as winter approaches, the buds go dormant in response to both shorter days and cooler temperatures. Ripens in Aug. Peach, Belle of Georgia. Its skin is smooth but can be covered with very short hairs. You'll get your first peaches after three or four years. Many of the apple, pear, plum and peach trees that we sell provide magnificent color in the spring and help shade your yard in the hot summer months. Ripens mid-July in Central Calif. Cropping ability in the ‘Gulf’ plums is very high and fruit thinning must be done in order to obtain large fruit and keep limbs from breaking. See our Fruit Tree Spacing Guide for more specifics. Plant database entry for Dwarf Peach (Prunus persica 'Belle of Georgia') with 4 images and 26 data details. Sweet flavored fruit ripens Mid-Sept/Oct. Self-Pollinating Mid-Season Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium) "Sunburst" ripens in the middle of the peak cherry season and has large, dark red fruit. Mid season harvest. We carry a large variety of fruit trees starting at $39. In addition to bearing sweet, juicy fruit, all of these stone fruits have beautiful springtime blossoms and attractive leaves. Self-pollinating. Belle of Georgia will ripen in August, and requires 800 chill hours. It is grown for its luscious fruit but some cultivars are grown chiefly for there flowers and produce inedible fruit. Self-pollinated trees produce less fruit than trees that require cross-pollination. Planting new Pawpaw trees in the patch may thus result in fruit bearing. Garlic (Allium sativum) and garlic chives (Allium tuberosum) are the two most important companions to peaches as they deter their worst pests, the two species of peach tree borer moths. The Belle of Georgia Peach tree can be grown successfully throughout the United States with proper care. Very bud hardy. 0 out of 5 stars 1 $69. The White Lady Peach Tree - Prunus persica 'White Lady' : The White Lady Peach Tree, Prunus persica 'White Lady' is among the best of the new low acid, high sugar, fresh market white peaches. This peach tree is self-pollinating. Remember to prune trees adequately late in the spring to maintain vigor and to thin the fruit heavily to get good size. Fruit Trees. Species trees grow up to 25' tall and wide but peach trees sold in commerce today are grafted to rootstocks which control the size of the tree. Dickey Farms has been growing peaches in the heartland of Georgia for over 120 years. It will probably be a couple of years before the tree bears much fruit, but it will give us something to look forward to. The answer is cross-pollination. BELLE OF GEORGIA PEACH Prunus persica 'Belle of Georgia' A self-fertile Peach tree bearing large, firm, white freestone fruits. You'll enjoy bushels of big, luscious peaches that have an almost fuzzless skin over firm, creamy yellow flesh. History and Origins of the Elberta Peach Tree. Belle of Georgia: Prunus Persica-Peach Zones 6-9 Ht. The Belle of Georgia peach grows in sandy and well-drained soils. Ripens 4 weeks after Red Haven. Prunus persica 'Carolina Belle' NC State University and N. You cannot order on line. The first year is a critical time for the establishment of a new peach. Also like cherry trees, peach trees are self-fertile. And remember that climate is the most important. If you like Peach Sorbet™ -- and you will, we promise! -- be sure to try the other Bushel and Berry™ as well. While most of our peach trees are self-pollinating, we still recommend planting another variety in your yard for optimum fruit production. The peaches are very firm and highly flavored, with creamy white freestone flesh tinged with red. The peach is a deciduous tree native to northwest China, and was brought to Florida by Spanish explorers in the 16th century. Plant these around the trunks of the trees. Want a backyard orchard? Here’s how. Do you need two Elberta peach trees in order for them to bear fruit? The state of Georgia is nicknamed 'The Peach State' because of its abundance of peach trees and its export of the fruit. I think they are Dixi-Red because they get nice and red and are sort of tangy and sweet. Bartlett is the most recognized European-type pear in America and is not adapted to the Southeast and should not be planted in Georgia. One of the most popular and reliable peaches in the USA produces high-quality freestone fruit. Most avocado trees are self-pollinating here in California, however you will ABSOLUTELY get more fruit if you have at least one tree of each type in your home orchard. Skin is golden overlaid with red. Bellegarde is partially self-fertile, but fruiting will be improved if there is a compatible tree of a different variety nearby. Then we waited, dreaming of the peaches we'd get the following year. Shop prunus persica 'belle of georgia' semi-dwarf tree (l6144) in the fruit plants section of Lowes. (Self-pollinating) Print this sign out at www. Very disease resistant and long-lived. Certain varieties are self-fruitful; that is, they can pollinate themselves. Bartlett is the most recognized European-type pear in America and is not adapted to the Southeast and should not be planted in Georgia. They are not guaranteed to fruit the year of planting, but many will. another terrific self-pollinating plum for our mild climate. Peaches on grocery store shelves are harvested for sale - picked before the flavor develops, so that the peaches can be rushed to commercial markets. Since it flowers in the middle of the blossom season it can be pollinated by most other peach trees. This is a tree that will provide you with a large harvest with very little care needed on your part. The most popular peach is the Elberta peach tree that is a freestone, and then the Belle of Georgia freestone peach is a white peach with a melting ripe flavor sweetness. The trees reach an overall height of 20' feet tall with a spread 10' foot wide. They bake and preserve well, and can be simpler to prepare since the flesh is easy to separate from the pit. However, you will have a much higher fruit yield with two of them planted within 30 feet of each other. Flordabelle Peach. Perfect for eating, baking and canning. In order for fruit to develop, pollen, which comes from the male part of the flower, must be transferred to the stigma, or female part of the flower. Usually needs a short course for care, as all peaches do. The peach is a deciduous tree native to northwest China, and was brought to Florida by Spanish explorers in the 16th century. Shop prunus persica 'belle of georgia' tree (l3218) in the fruit plants section of Lowes. Heavy-bearing, cold hardy and resistant to bacteria spot, Red Haven has a wonderful red color over a yellow background. Nectarine trees, like sour cherries, are incredibly popular with new farmers as they also self-pollinate. However, like you I’ve read all the literature saying one must have a type 1 and a type 2 in the local area to have pecans bear. Bud mutation of Redhaven. They are not drought tolerant. grew to a larger scale, now growing over 3 million trees every year. The fruit are yellow with a red blush. The following spring we planted a dwarf apple tree, a dwarf pear tree, and a dwarf peach tree, all self-pollinating so that we wouldn’t have to plant multiple trees to generate fruit. Prunus persica 'Carolina Belle' NC State University and N. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N. The Belle of Georgia Peach tree is a fruiting tree, that grows to a height of 15-25′ and a spread of around 8-20′ at maturity. Pollination is not an important factor for pecan trees in most of the South and in areas where the pecan trees are native. A fourth-generation farmer, Dickey manages approximately 1,000 acres of peaches and 3,000 acres of timberland with the help of his 90-year-old father, Bob Dickey, his wife, Cynde Dickey, and their son and daughter-in-law, Lee and Stacy Dickey. Self-pollinating. Other threads similar to pollination distance for plums, and the NAP system (Sobkowiak) fruit trees. The vast majority of peaches for sale to retail customers are freestone peaches. 25-Gallon Jonathan Semi-Dwarf Apple Tree (L4515) Nursery. Sometimes a peach seed will produce a nectarine tree, or a nectarine seed will grow to be a peach tree. All figs sold in Georgia are self-pollinating, so you don’t need to worry about buying more than one for it to produce fruit. There are many uses for the peach, including jams, salsa, pies and ice cream. Tomorrow, I will harvest her, with reverence and awe. Very firm peach and highly flavored. at discount price online, Pixies Gardens. Coralstar® holds well on the tree and in storage and does not brown when cut. Prunus persica. A hardy, compact tree growing to 2 meters at full maturity. On the other hand, there are peach orchards around here - if you spray them with all the synthetic stuff you can get peaches. Here are some of the self pollinating fruit trees. Height: 4' - 6'. Like all peaches, this variety grows in full sun, very well drained soil and should be planted 12 to 15 feet apart. Some have called it the "bagel or donut peach" because of its size and shape. Ripens 4 weeks after Red Haven. Vigorous, productive tree. The Belle of Georgia peach is the most celebrated white peach tree grown in the United States, and the interior pulp is white and delicious to taste. com Skip to main content Skip to main navigation. This can be a particular concern in areas where temperatures fluctuate. It is not drought-tolerant. Trees of 'UFSun' are of large size and highly vigorous with a semi-spreading growth habit. Small yards. The grafted semi-dwarf peach trees are self pollinated, even before the flowers fully open, and the tree is cold hardy to negative 20 degrees Fahrenheit; however, the red to pink delicate flowers can be damaged by temperatures below 28 degrees Fahrenheit. Sweet, extra-juicy fruit is an absolute delight for fresh eating, canning, baking, and freezing. Succulents. Varieties for southern Illinois may be planted in favorable locations. Of course, you'll find that fruit trees shine brightest at harvest time, as you pick from your own produce aisle right there in your backyard. Choosing, planting & growing berry bushes, fruit & nut trees. Grows in zones: 5 - 8. Ripens about August 15. Peach Trees. Latin Name: Prunus persica Site and Soil: Peaches and Nectarines like full to 1/2 day sun and well-drained soil. The listing to the left is "The Heirloom Apple Tree Collection", which is available for sale. While it is self-fertile, planting more than one tree is recommending to ensure a good crop. A delicious, gourmet peach and a trio of plump, tasty plums are the newest summer fruits for you from ARS tree-fruit breeders in California. These are: types of pistils, anther size, pollen size, nectar and pollen production. While most of our peach trees are self-pollinating, we still recommend planting another variety in your yard for optimum fruit production. If pollination takes place between the flowers of just one plant or tree, it is called self-fruiting and the plant is. Bartlett is the most recognized European-type pear in America and is not adapted to the Southeast and should not be planted in Georgia. The grafted semi-dwarf peach trees are self pollinated, even before the flowers fully open, and the tree is cold hardy to negative 20 degrees Fahrenheit; however, the red to pink delicate flowers can be damaged by temperatures below 28 degrees Fahrenheit. Produces 5 different kinds of peaches on one tree!This compact 8-10' tree is an excellent choice for the home peach grower. (Zones 5-9) Florida King. Frost hardy. How many trees to plant. All figs sold in Georgia are self-pollinating, so you don’t need to worry about buying more than one for it to produce fruit. USDA zones 5-9. The Gravenstein apple is remembered fondly by many European people, good fresh eating, cooking and cider, needs to be left on the tree to develop full flavours, early ripener, lisp and aromatic Ripens: January Pollinate with: Beauty of Bath,Lord Lambourne, McIntosh, Red Braeburn, Vista Bella, Forfar Pippin, Egremont Russet, Golden Harvey Triploid: needs 2-3. Prunus persica. The Harvester is considered fast growing, it grows between 2-3′ a year. However, like you I’ve read all the literature saying one must have a type 1 and a type 2 in the local area to have pecans bear. Good size, store well, late peach, colour can sometimes be a problem, fruits on tips of the branches, self-fertile, limited market (peach market drops off after Sept. All the varieties of Peaches we offer are self-pollinating, and the expected bearing age is 2-3 years old. Most apples, pawpaws, pears, and plums require another cultivar of such a tree to pollinate flowers. The flower was adopted as the floral emblem of Delaware in 1895 and the state flower in 1953. They are not drought tolerant. To me, there's nothing better than a ripe, juicy peach on a summer day. Explore Maggie H. Free Returns 100% Money Back Guarantee Fast Shipping. 6+2 organic cuttings of the Belle of Georgia peach tree. A peach tree will be ready for picking in its third year. The Belle of Georgia Peach, Prunus persica, produces large, firm, highly flavored fruit with brilliant red flowering. This includes, but is not limited to: where you can find plants (Find A Retailer), how to layout & plant your orchard, pollination, pest control and how to keep it all organic. Firm freestone flesh tinged red. 6+2 organic cuttings of the Belle of Georgia peach tree. Peaches on grocery store shelves are harvested for sale - picked before the flavor develops, so that the peaches can be rushed to commercial markets. They also require heavier pruning than any other fruit trees to maintain size and encourage new growth. Take care to plant the bud union above the soil level. 0 out of 5 stars 1. Shop prunus persica 'belle of georgia' semi-dwarf tree (l6144) in the fruit plants section of Lowes. Pollination Requirements: Frost Peach is self-fertile. Vines for fences. PEACHES- Belle of Georgia, Blushing Star, Red Haven Dwarf PLUMS – B&B Stanley, Superior Fruiting Plum 2. Produces brilliant red flowers in Spring. This ten- dency is denoted by a ‘Yes +’ on the quick reference tables. White Georgia Peaches Self fertile 5 seeds, big. Posts about Mugs written by Cousin Belle. For timber is usually grown black walnut, which growers call a “legacy tree”, because it takes about 30 years to reach it's prime harvesting size of about 16 inches or so for a veneer log. A tree that looks great year-round, this variety is a heavy bearer of purple-red fruit that is sweet, juicy & fresh in flavor. Certain varieties are self-fruitful; that is, they can pollinate themselves. I was gifted two peach trees (home depot). Trees that need to be pollinated by another variety of the same fruit species. A freestone peach with bright yellow flesh. 25-Gallon Jonathan Semi-Dwarf Apple Tree (L4515) Nursery. There are many uses for the peach, including jams, salsa, pies and ice cream. Consistent with its known history as the result of open-pollination (Hedrick et al.